Dental fluorosis (also termed mottled enamel) is hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation.
It appears as a range of visual changes in enamel causing degrees of intrinsic tooth discoloration. The severity of the condition is dependent on the dose, duration and age of the individual during the exposure.In the mildest form (which is the most common) there are faint white lines or specks. Slightly more severe cases appear as white mottled patches, while severe fluorosis is characterized by brown discoloration and brittle, pitted and rough enamel.
The specialty oral and maxillofacial pathology is concerned with diagnosis and study of the causes and effects of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. The clinical evaluation and diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases are in the scope of oral & maxillofacial pathology specialists and oral medicine practitioners, both disciplines of dentistry. When a microscopic evaluation is needed, a biopsy is taken, and microscopically observed by a pathologist.
Oral cancer is the most common form of cancer in India. 130,000 people succumb to oral cancer in India annually. The reason for this high prevalence of oral cancer in India is primarily tobacco consumed in the form of gutka, quid, snuff or misri. In the North East India, the use of areca nut is also a risk factor for oral cancer. Early diagnosis of oral cancer patients would decrease mortality and help to improve treatment. Oral surgeons and dentists are the early diagnosis that diagnose these patients in early stages